The Portuguese introduced potatoes, which they called 'Batata', to India in the early seventeenth century when they cultivated it along the western coast. only after large scale efforts of France to find food that would sustain not only their military, but also population that was starved from continuous [16][21][22] At times and places when and where most other crops failed, potatoes could still typically be relied upon to contribute adequately to food supplies during colder years. Thus, per Jefferson, the cultivation of the potato was definitely Irish. [26] As in other continents, despite its advantages as an anti-famine, high-elevation alternative to grain, potatoes were first resisted by local farmers who believed they were poisonous. [2], Potato was the staple food of most Pre‑Columbian Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal Mapuche territories where maize did not reach maturity". Following its introduction into China toward the end of the Ming dynasty, the potato immediately became a delicacy of the imperial family. The plants were from Ireland, so the crop became known as the "Irish potato" Thomas Jefferson says of the white potato, "you say the potatoe is a native of the US. France Louis XVI (1754–1793) to encourage mass cultivation of this plant my tricking the population. Relevance. Long examination of the potato by the famous French botanist and chemist Antoine-Augustin Parmentier finally paid off when he persuaded King of where did the potato originate? Its high caloric value and wide variety of types enabled it to appear in every cuisine in the world. [14] Historians speculate that leftover tubers (and maize) were carried ashore and planted: "We think that the potato arrived some years before the end of the 16th century, by two different ports of entry: the first, logically, in Spain around 1570, and the second via the British Isles between 1588 and 1593 ... we find traces of the transport of potatoes travelling from the Canaries to Antwerp in 1567 ... we can say that the potato was introduced there [the Canary islands] from South America around 1562 ... the first written mention of the potato [is] ... a receipt for delivery dated 28 November 1567 between Las Palmas in the Grand Canaries and Antwerp. The potato is originally derived from the Andes of South America where Native Americans cultivated potatoes and other tubers by 10,000 years ago in the high Andean mountains of Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador.. Columbus did not personally meet the potato on his overseas journeys. The potato has its centers of origin in Peru, Bolivia, and Mexico where it is cultivated at the time of the Aztec and Inca civilizations. [19], The potato first spread in Europe for non-food purposes. Early colonists in Virginia and the Carolinas may have grown potatoes from seeds or tubers from Spanish ships, but the earliest certain potato crop in North America was in Londonderry, New Hampshire in 1719. I have enquired much into this question, & think I can assure you that plant is not a native of N. America. Potatoes yielded from two to four times more calories per acre than grain did, and eventually came to dominate the food supply in Eastern Europe. Ireland in 1589 and France in 1600. [10], Potato was cultivated by the Chono tribe in Guaitecas Archipelago in Patagonia being this the southern limit of Pre-Hispanic agriculture[11] as noted by the mention of the cultivation of Chiloé potatoes by a Spanish expedition in 1557. Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes, tubers specifically grown to be free from disease and to provide consistent and healthy plants. I presume you speak of the Irish potatoe. In the late 1800s, the modern-day russet potato was born. Boiled or baked potatoes were cheaper than rye bread, just as nutritious, and did not require a gristmill for grinding. In 1588, botanist Carolus Clusius made a painting of what he called "Papas Peruanorum" from a specimen in the Low Countries; in 1601 he reported that potatoes were in common use in northern Italy for animal fodder and for human consumption. The poor should be quite content with this foodstuff. Early colonists in Virginia and the Carolinas may have grown potatoes from seeds or tubers from Spanish ships, but the earliest certain potato crop in North America was in Londonderry, New Hampshire in 1719. King gave Parmentier funds and land to grow 100 acres Centuries after they were introduced to Europe and North America, potatoes represent one of the most disease destroyed entire potato production of Ireland. [25] Shipping records from 1567 show that the first place outside of Central and South America where potatoes were grown were the Canary Islands. Thus, the first step the Andean farmers made toward domesticating and cultivating it was to select specimens with less poison for replanting. and 1593 (Canary Islands received it in 1562). European adoption of potato was slow but steady. The potato was first domesticated in the region of modern-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia[1] between 8000 and 5000 BC. [9] The fact that the Altiplanos chose to represent the potato in their vessels shows they had great social significance to the people there. Maize is north american, oats is middle eastern, rice is eastern from China. The benefits of chuño are plentiful. [41][42] These varieties were mostly grown in small gardens by elderly women, and passed down generation by generation. In early 1800s, potato became a commonplace crop that was used in entire Europe, but such popularity became severely tested between 1845 and 1849 when [29] Potatoes were planted in Idaho as early as 1838; by 1900 the state's production exceeded a million bushels (about 27,000 tonnes[31]). reached incredible 324 million tons (74.8 million tons in China, 36.6 in India, 21.1 in Ukraine, 18.3 in United States and 10.2 in Germany, etc.). Potatoes originate in North America, they were not grown as a crop in Europe until they were brought back by English and Spanish sailors in the late 16th Century. However, recent evidence has shown that the potato originated from the region of southern Peru. gold in Peru. (modern-day southern Peru and northwestern Bolivia) managed to prove its usefulness to our ancestors, who cultivated it, nurtured it, and ensured its Sadly, local population of those countries looked at potato as absolutely unneeded, weird, poisonous (only roots of the amount of people to emigrate out of Ireland (500 thousand left for North America and Australia). With Help from Colorado • According to Luther Burbank, the Russet Burbank was originated by a Lon D. Sweet of Denver, Colorado, who evidently selected a chance sport, or bud, out of Burbank's variety. Although potatoes had become widely familiar in Russia by 1800, they were confined to garden plots until the grain failure in 1838–39 persuaded peasants and landlords in central and northern Russia to devote their fallow fields to raising potatoes. Potatoes tended to become more popular in wartime due to their being able to be stored in the ground. It was well established as a crop by the mid-20th century [22] and in present-day Africa they have become a vegetable or co-staple crop. A similar pattern occurred in England where the potato became the food of the working class. In modern times potatoes have grown in popularity due to their versatility and ability to be used for many different dishes of food. However, the cash crop of the Andean people was chuño: created by letting potatoes freeze overnight, then allowing them to thaw in the morning. Only after the 1872 efforts of famous horticulturist Luther Burbank (1849-1926), American potato industry managed to gain some traction. . ", "A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping", "Potato germplasm collecting expedition to the Guaitecas and Chonos Archipelagos, Chile, 1990", "Descifrando la historia ambiental de los archipiélagos de Aysén, Chile: El influjo colonial y la explotación económica-mercantil republicana (siglos XVI-XIX)", "DNA from herbarium specimens settles a controversy about origins of the European potato", "Columbus's Contribution to World Population and Urbanization: A Natural Experiment Examining the Introduction of Potatoes", "The Cambridge World History of Food- Potatoes (White)", "The Secret History of the Potato – ScienceNOW", https://www.monticello.org/site/research-and-collections/ireland, "Containers and Weights of Commercial Fruits, Nuts, and Vegetables", "After 168 Years, Potato Famine Mystery Solved", "Mash hits: the land that spawned the supermarket spud", "Fallece Profesor Andrés Contreras destacado especialista en papas nativas y ex alumno de la UACh", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_the_potato&oldid=1001885987, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 21:04. Scholtencompany: the first Dutch industrial multinational, Summary of dissertation, University of Groningen, 2004, Steven Turner, and Heather Molyneaux, "Agricultural Science, Potato Breeding and the Fredericton Experimental Station, 1912–66. There it was propagated, carried to England as the Irish Potato, then introduced to North America. The crop slowly spread across Europe, becoming a major staple by mid-century, especially in Ireland. The baked potato has been popular in the UK for many years. (Corn, another American crop, played a similar but smaller role in southern Europe.) Potato arrived to Britain in 1585, Belgium and Germany in 1587, Austria in 1588, syphilis, early death, sterility, rampant sexuality, scrofula, narcosis and for destroying the soil where it grew. It is estimated that they were first domesticated between 8000 BC and 5000 BC. [11] The collection of Contreras became the groundwork for the gene bank of Chilean potatoes at the Austral University of Chile in Valdivia. animals. Peter Boomgaard looks at the adoption of various root and tuber crops in Indonesia throughout the colonial period and examines the chronology and reasons for progressive adoption of foreign crops: sweet potato (widespread by the 1670s), ("Irish") potato and bengkuang (yam beans) (both locally abundant by the 1780s), and cassava (from the 1860s). We dig deep to bring you the history of the spud, as well as some a-mazing recipes. King Louis XVI and his court eagerly promoted the new crop, with Queen Marie Antoinette even wearing a headdress of potato flowers at a fancy dress ball. Potatoes dating to about 2000 BC have been found at Huaynuma, in the Casma Valley of Peru, and early potatoes dating to 800-500 BC were also uncovered at the Altiplano site of Chiripa on the east side of Lake Titicaca. It was grown for flowers by Rudolph Jakob Camerarius (1588) and others; John Gerard added the first printed picture of the potato to Herball (1597), although he thought that the plant was native to Virginia. [33], In Britain, the potato promoted economic development by underpinning the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The Inca Indians in Peru were the first to cultivate potatoes around 8,000 BC to 5,000 B.C. The potato thus became an important staple crop in northern Europe. Frederick was sometimes known as the Kartoffelkönig ("potato king"). As time went by, less bitter and larger potatoes were introduced and cultivated. of potato, which were carefully guarded by military guards. The potato has become a symbol of Irish cuisine, but how did that happen? Farmers then extract the water from the potato, leaving it much lighter and smaller. I have enquired much into this question, & think I can assure you that plant is not a native of N. form in the South American Andean highlands between Peru and Bolivia. Where Did French Fries Really Originate? This meant that potatoes were barred from large-scale cultivation because the rules allowed only grain to be planted in the open fields. Basque fishermen from Spain used potatoes as ships' stores for their voyages across the Atlantic in the 16th century, and introduced the tuber to western Ireland, where they landed to dry their cod. But why is it we compare lazy people to potatoes and why on Earth did some random guy own the trademark rights to such a silly sounding expression? Watch Queue Queue In Northern Europe there were major crop losses lasting throughout the rest of the 19th century. [24], It is generally believed that potatoes entered Africa with colonists, who consumed them as a vegetable rather than as a staple starch. In 1536 Spanish Conquistadors conquered Peru, discovered the flavors of the potato, and carried them to Europe. It spread into France, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands and England, and caused huge crop failures in which thousands of people died. For many years they regarded this crop for horses and other A … On the other hand, cash-oriented landlords realised that grain was much easier to ship, store and sell, so both grain and potatoes coexisted.[32]. This Kartoffelbefehl (potato order) termed the unfamiliar tuber "a very nutritious food supplement." [16] In France and Germany, government officials and noble landowners promoted the rapid conversion of fallow land into potato fields after 1750. -AshAnswers It was originated in Belgium. military and navy who while using them did not succumb to the scurvy. As a member of the nightshade family, the edible root, or tuber, of the wild potato plant contains a considerable amount of poisonous alkaloid compounds. In the beginning, Spanish government used potato as a reliable and easily transported food for their Ugent D., S. Pozorski and T. Pozorski. survival during the last 10,000 years of our history. French physician Antoine Parmentier studied the potato intensely and in Examen chymique des pommes de terres ("Chemical examination of potatoes") (Paris, 1774) showed their enormous nutritional value. The high yields of potato crops allowed even the poorest farmers to produce healthy food with very little resources. Human settlers reached that part of our world around 15 thousand years ago, and managed to domesticate wild potato around 8 millennia BC. 4 Answers. They originated in the eastern European countries of Germany Austria, Russia Still, it was the European Jews who gave potato pancakes their residual oil drip out (Soriano's tip: Paper towels do not soak up extra grease. [35], A lack of genetic diversity from the low number of varieties left the crop vulnerable to disease. managed to domesticate wild potato around 8 millennia BC. The potato diffused widely after 1600, becoming a major food resource in Europe and East Asia. It was 1853, eight years before the beginning of the Civil War. plant were edible, which was totally unheard off in Europe), and in some cases as downright evil. Andean Indians prepared their potatoes in a variety of ways, such as mashed, baked, boiled, and stewed in ways similar to modern methods. These potatoes were then fermented in order to create toqosh: and ground to a pulp, soaked, and filtered into a starch referred to as almidón de papa. Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, an 18th century advocate of the tuber, came upon the potato during the Seven Years War, during which time he was a prisoner of war. In the German lands, Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, strove successfully to overcome farmers' skepticism about the potato, and in 1756 he issued an official proclamation mandating its cultivation. T… It served as a cheap source of calories and nutrients that was easy for urban workers to cultivate on small backyard plots. Potatoes originally came from the Andes mountains of South America.They were introduced into Europe by Spanish explorers in … The poor should be quite content with this foodstuff. "[5] It had widely replaced the turnip and rutabaga by the 19th century. Human settlers reached that part of our world around 15 thousand years ago, and For many years, potato was accused for causing leprosy, The Lumper potato, widely cultivated in western and southern Ireland before and during the Great Famine, was bland, wet and poorly resistant to the potato blight, but yielded large crops and usually provided adequate calories for peasants and labourers. "[15], Europeans in South America were aware of the potato by the mid-16th century, but refused to eat the plant. The annual potato crop of France soared to 21 million hectoliters in 1815 and 117 million in 1840, allowing a concomitant growth in population while avoiding the Malthusian trap. attention of the people, who after that started adopting potato more and more until it became one of the most popular food sources in the Europe. [23], In France, at the end of the 16th century, the potato had been introduced to the Franche-Comté, the Vosges of Lorraine and Alsace. How The Sweet Potato Crossed The Pacific Way Before The Europeans Did : The Salt The genes of the root vegetable have a juicy story to tell of trans-oceanic adventure. the centuries of selective breeding, we now have access to over thousand different types of potatoes that are grown all around the word. Such large military and government attention on guarding these potatoes instantly sparked the Aside from these remains, the potato is also found in the Peruvian archaeological record as a design influence of ceramic pottery, often in the shape of vessels. United States of America was the last major country who adopted potato in their cuisine. Potatoes were first cultivated in the mountainous regions of Peru and Bolivia 3000 to 7000 years ago, where they are thought to have originated. It was also at least a hundred years after its arrival before the potato came to be accepted in any way as a food in the Mediterranean. The first written mention of the potato is a receipt for delivery dated 28 November 1567 between Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Antwerp. As colonialists promoted them as a low-cost food, they were also a symbol of domination. By the end of the 18th century, it was cultivated across northern hill areas of India. Share. [41] In 1990 he led a potato-hunting expedition to Guaitecas Archipelago,[12] the southern limit of Pre-Hispanic agriculture. [4] Potatoes dating to about 2000 BC have been found at Huaynuma, in the Casma Valley of Peru,[6] and early potatoes dating to 800-500 BC were also uncovered at the Altiplano site of Chiripa on the east side of Lake Titicaca. It is not known for certain where it came from but it had been in America from 1843 and may have been imported with guano (fertiliser) from South America. Potatoes comprised about 10% of the caloric intake of Europeans. In the 1950s–1960s, the growth of the French fry industry in New Brunswick led to a focus on developing varieties for the industry. If you want to call someone lazy, a time-honoured way to do so would be to call them a “couch potato”. By the 1800s, potatoes were a staple in the homes of Irish families. 1982. you say the potatoe is a native of the US. This new creation was then prepared into a stew, and usually was an addition to a stew. 1 decade ago. The potato has since spread around the world and has become a staple crop in many countries. [2] Cultivation of potatoes in South America may go back 10,000 years,[3] but tubers do not preserve well in the archaeological record, making identification difficult. After his first voyage to the Americas in 1492, Christopher Columbus took sweet potatoes back home to Europe. It was discovered by the Spaniards of Pizarro, on the Andean Cordillera, only in … The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancón (central Peru), dating to 2500 BC. [34], In Ireland, the expansion of potato cultivation was due entirely to the landless labourers, renting tiny plots from landowners who were interested only in raising cattle or in producing grain for market. After Philip II received potatoes from Peru, he sent harvested tubers to the pope, who sent them to the papal ambassador to the Netherlands because he was ill. Clusius indirectly received his tubers from the ambassador; he planted them in Vienna, Frankfurt, and Leyden, and is the person who widely introduced the plant to Europe. Baked Potato History – London – United Kingdom A baked potato is sometimes called a jacket potato in the United Kingdom. Potato, indigenous flowering plants of the South America and the Andes mountains In the UK, most seed potatoes originate in [20] People feared that it was poisonous like other plants the potato was often grown with in herb gardens, and distrusted a plant, nicknamed "the devil's apples", that grew underground. The prevailing story of the origin of the potato chip starts in Saratoga Springs, New York, a historically affluent and resort community. The potato originated from South America, specifically, the Inca grew it in what is today Peru and Bolivia, and, after the Spanish conquistadors discovered the Incan Empire in the early 1500s, they brought the potato back to Europe, where it eventually found it's way to Ireland. Potatoes became popular in the north of England, where coal was readily available, so a potato-driven population boom provided ample workers for the new factories. Doing this repeatedly allowed for a softening of the potatoes. Before 1910, the crops were stored in barns or root cellars, but, by the 1920s, potato cellars or barns came into use. Fried potatoes were first introduced in the United States by Thomas Jefferson in the late 18th century. As a result, potatoes evolved and were bred to be larger so that they could feed more people. Domestication, spread, and popular usage of the potato in history, "Histoires de légumes" by M. Pitrat and C. Foury, Institut National de la recherche agronomique, 2003, p. 167. The Origins of the Potato Potatoes aren’t native to Ireland—or anywhere in Europe, for that matter. Resorts, inns, restaurants, and spas had begun to crop up alo… I presume you speak of the Irish potatoe. Where did potato pancakes originate. And who invented them? important parts of world’s cuisine and the fourth-largest food crop in the entire world (following maize, rice and wheat). In 2010 world production of potatoes The story of potato started around 350 million years ago, when they started to evolve from the poisonous ancestor of the plant nightshade (this family of [4] Aside from actual remains, the potato is also found in the Peruvian archaeological record as a design influence of ceramic pottery, often in the shape of vessels. In the early 1800s, a strain of potato blight (Phytophthora infestans) known as HERB-1 began to spread in the Americas, especially Central and North America destroying many crops. This was Tweet. The Incas learned to dehydrate and mash potatoes into a substance that would store for years called chunu, therefore, potatoes became a staple crop there. attention in the 1500s when first Spanish conquistadors started exploring beyond the coasts of South America, especially after 1530s when they searched for The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancón (central Peru), dating to 2500 BC. The wife Known for its mineral springs and their supposed rejuvenation properties, Saratoga Springs had just started becoming a tourist destination with help of the railroad that cut through the town. It was first eaten on the continent at a Seville hospital in 1573. Across most of Northern Europe, where open fields prevailed, potatoes were strictly confined to small garden plots because field agriculture was strictly governed by custom that prescribed seasonal rhythms for plowing, sowing, harvesting and grazing animals on fallow and stubble. Eastern from China high caloric value and wide variety of types enabled it appear... Potato king '' ) spread around the world only 15 states out all! That involved boiling, peeling, and caused huge crop failures in thousands!, only one variety was taken to Spain, only one variety was taken ( Mann, 2011.! The potatoe is a native of N was first eaten on the streets by … did. ( potato order ) termed the unfamiliar tuber `` a very nutritious food supplement. passed down generation by.... That, for example, by 1845 it occupied one-third of Irish arable land Spain they..., Belgium and Germany in 1587, Austria in 1588, Ireland in 1589 on the 40,000 acres of crops! 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States by Thomas Jefferson in the 16th century for the Spanish government many.!