The Irish famine was the worst to occur in Europe in the 19th century: about one million people died from starvation or from typhus and other famine-related diseases. Nonetheless, in 1589 Raleigh did plant potato seeds at his Irish estate in Cork before offering them as a gift to Queen Elizabeth I. Aside from these remains, the potato is also found in the Peruvian archaeological record as a design influence of ceramic pottery, often in the shape of vessels. Because wild But it did not receive a warm welcome. Originating from the highlands of the Andes, South America, potatoes were introduced to Europe in the sixteenth century. The head of the FEPEX potato committee, Jose Ramón Aguado, reported that this year's Spanish potato season will come to an end with a 15 to 20% lower yield than in 2017. In 1570, the Spanish brought the potato from Peru to Spain. The Inca were already cultivating sweet potatoes 800 year after Christ. food. somewhere between 2000 and 5000 B.C., concurrent with the domestication of the Pedro de Cieza de León wrote about the potato Naples, then a dominion of the Spanish Bourbons. from the New World in 1569-70. 1538 by the Spanish Conquistador and historian, Pedro de Cieza de León, in the Where did corn come from? Potatoes were first domesticated in Peru between 3000 BC and 2000 BC. Pumpkin. The potato was domesticated in the High Andes as early as seven to ten thousand years ago and was widely cultivated by Inca times. The commonly accepted story The potato carried on its journey to wider European countries through the hands of sailors who brought the spud to different ports. It wasn’t until the mid-sixteenth century that potatoes would venture across the seas to Europe. The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancón (central Peru), dating to 2500 BC. working towards that end. widespread cultivation helped reduce famines in Europe in the seventeenth and They quickly spread throughout Europe and were included in the local cuisines. The historical herbarium samples from centuries ago, kept in at the Museum and other institutions, were key to understanding the story. T… Originally corn was first cultivated by the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan Empires in Mexico and Central America more than 5000+ years ago. The introduction of farming across the world changed the course of human history. 1800 AD – 1900 AD. Frederick the Great ordered Prussian farmers to grow them, and the potato moved to the center of European cultures from Gibraltar to Kiev. was the starch in potatoes--its caloric value--which made it as attractive as a It wasn't long before they were in demand throughout the continent as a food that was easy to grow and highly nutritious. Great Famine, famine that occurred in Ireland in 1845–49 when the potato crop failed in successive years. household economy. In any case it seems that the first potato to reach Europe arrived in Spain and must have come from Peru and transhiped through Cartagena in Columbia in the mid-sixteenth century. © The Trustees of The Natural History Museum, London. the potato had it been growing in Spain, although it may have been in much Potatoes were soon a standard supply item on their ships. In the beginning, Spanish government used potato as a reliable and easily transported food for their military and navy who while using them did not succumb to the scurvy. seventeenth century we see the potato more and more in the cuisines of Spain and Three tubers, the potato, the same time, but it was the potato that became the dominant food. scholar as Clusius, the greatest botanist of his day, would not have overlooked Most importantly, it by Mike Davey. The record of the potato’s exact place of origin and how it came to the The Irish Potato Famine, also known as the Great Hunger, began in 1845 when a fungus-like organism called Phytophthora infestans (or P. infestans) spread rapidly throughout Ireland. Â. The Just like regular potatoes, their origins lie in Southern America. 1 In this essay, I will give the brief history of the development of the … The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas, a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum, and the plant itself is a perennial in the nightshade family, Solanaceae. Belgium and is credited with introducing the potato to Germany and France. 'Samples from modern Chile all had the European variant of CDF1, showing that these plants were mixed with European potatoes,' says Sandy. When Sir Francis Drake returned to England from the New World he had with him two plants never before seen in Europe, namely the potato and tobacco.England s reaction to the plants was echoed all through out Europe. llama, seems likely. The Hospital de la Sangre in Seville was buying potatoes as part of their housekeeping as early as 1573. Potato arrived to Britain in 1585, Belgium and Germany in 1587, Austria in 1588, Ireland in 1589 and France in 1600. potato continued its journey north from Spain into France and the rest of It was near the middle of the 1700s that they were known over most of the country, and since that time they have been extensively cultivated. This garden-to-table salad is drizzled with a zesty herb vinaigrette. History of Potatoes In Europe Though potatoes are a staple food across much of Europe these days, the tuber wasn’t quite so popular in the continent just a few hundred years ago. It was probably Columbus who brought the first sweet potatoes to Europe. In 2007, Americans ate 20% fewer potatoes than they did in 1997, according to a report from the United States Potato Board. Winner of the James Beard/ KitchenAid Cookbook of the Year 2000 and Winner of the Beard Award for the Best Writing on Food 2000. cultivated by Inca times. In any case it seems that the first potato to It was also at The potato originated in the region of southern Peru. HOW DID THE POTATO GET TO EUROPE? When potatoes finally spread to Europe in the 18th and early 19th centuries, one of the biggest problems that Europe has always faced was resolved. The potato was seen as poisonous while tobacco was seen with wonder and amazement. potato entered Europe in two places, one being Spain. White potatoes were cultivated in the United States by 1838. Potatoes dating to about 2000 BC have been found at Huaynuma, in the Casma Valley of Peru, and early potatoes dating to 800-500 BC were also uncovered at the Altiplano site of Chiripa on the east side of Lake Titicaca. European adoption of potato was slow but steady. Potatoes Travelled to Europe by Way of Spanish Conquistadors In 1532 conquistadors from Spain came sailing onto the scene searching for vast riches to bring back to Europe. The potato was only grown in small This research shows how combining genetic analysis of contemporary and historical samples allows us to begin to understand the complex history of crop adaptation to new environments. Throughout Europe, potatoes were regarded with suspicion, distaste and fear. And it was even later, about 1570, that the first potato made its way across the Atlantic to make a start on the continent of Europe. Western man did not come in contact with the potato until as late as 1537 when the Conquistadors tramped through Peru. As other famines hit Europe, the potato became a staple crop, especially in Ireland. — A passage from, The Art of Cookery, an 18th-century recipe book written by English author Hannah Glasse. The great French botanist Carolus Clusius Cauca Valley of Colombia and introduced as a curiosity to Europe by 1573. The spread of the potato It is thought that potatoes were brought back to Europe by silver miners in the 16th century. knobby and unlike the smooth ovals we see today that is a result of cultivators Plants appeared on Earth 100 million years earlier than scientists previously thought. through Cartagena in Columbia in the mid-sixteenth century. The third reason why potatoes have become so popular is its productivity. 'Future efforts to help them along in the face of climate change are really important. "Let the … When the Spanish Conquistadors didn't find the gold and silver they were looking for in the late 1400s and early 1500s, they quickly cornered the local potato market. found there. Raleigh did help to make smoking popular at court. In 1796, in the county of Essex, about 1700 acres of potatoes were planted for the supply of the London market. However, at first, potatoes were regarded as a strange vegetable and they were not commonly grown in Europe until the 18th century. region of Chile, to southern Peru, and to Bolivia-northern Argentina. But the use of potatoes gradually spread, as their excellent qualities became better understood. thisnzlife.co.nz. It was hunger. result of Indian trading, and then to England after the first permanent English We have definite proof of the potato being potato tubers taste bitter and contain toxic amounts of alkaloids, the earliest Pumpkins are native to Central America. Sweet potatoes are not potatoes. colonies was established there in the early seventeenth century. The introduction of the potato and its 1576 and never mentioned the potato. While most of the media attention focused on the potato production problems in North-western Europe, the potato season in Spain did not go much better. The Incas made a flour from the potatoes they called chuño, which did not spoil. eaten at the Sangre hospital in Seville in 1573, so it must have reached Spain Sweet potatoes originated in South and Central America. In the UK, potato consumption decreased by … They were initially popular in Spain because they provided cheap sustenance for the poor. Privacy notice. 1719– Potatoes had been introduced to the United States several times throughout the 1600s. However when Raleigh arrived back in England in 1586, he brought with him colonists from the settlement on the Roanoke Island and these colonists brought with them tobacco, maize and potatoes. But it may very well have come to France from English botanists of the time thought the Dauphiné and then traveling south to his native Languedoc. in the High Andes as early as seven to ten thousand years ago and was widely Mediterranean is scanty. us that the potato came to France from Switzerland, arriving first in the In fact, in the same area potatoes can provide 10 times more yield than wheat. of the discovery of the potato by Europeans tells of its being found in 1537 or It seems that so attentive and careful a Unlike regular potatoes, which are tubers, sweet potatoes are considered to be root vegetables. In the 1840s potatoes in Ireland were afflicted by potato blight and the result was a terrible famine as the people had come to rely on potatoes for their staple food. and to Switzerland. 1771 – Antoine-Augustin Parmentier (1737-1813), a French military chemist and botanist, won a contest sponsored by the Academy of Besancon to find a food “capable of reducing the calamities of famine” with his study o… eighteenth centuries. Clusius received two tubers and a fruit in 1588 from Philippe de Sivry of They baked bread with this flour. The celebrated a mixture of Chilean potatoes (that grow in long-day climates in southern South America) with Andean potatoes in Europe. It is not known when this happened but Sir John Hawkins and his crew could have brought it to these shores as early as 1565. Sir Walter Raleigh introduced potatoes to Ireland in 1589 on the 40,000 acres of land near Cork. Europeans were leery of its ugly appearance and bland taste so, at first, the potato was used for livestock feed, but eventually, because of food shortages, it gained popularity as a palatable vegetable. least a hundred years after its arrival before the potato came to be accepted He published his results in the other direction, from England. The first, into Spain about 1570 and the second into England between 1585-1590. gardens in Spain in the last part of the sixteenth century, but by the recognize and select plants that were less bitter and less toxic. Even though the Hungarian people had no idea what the potato was, they planted and ate the potato increasing potato production (Crosby, 1972). 'Within Europe, potatoes have kept evolving to adapt to this new environment,' says Sandy. sweet potato, and the sunchoke all entered Europe from the New World about the It went first to Virginia, a So that’s probably enough history on cheese and potatoes now- let’s get down to … Spanish explorers brought the potato back to their home country around 1565. After a famine hit Hungary in 1772, the government ordered that potatoes be planted, grown, and eaten (Crosby, 1972). Its sweetness won Europeans over immediately. latest evidence for its origin points in several directions: to the Chiloé They were not widely grown for almost a century until 1719, when they were planted in Londonderry, New Hampshire, by Scotch-Irish immigrants, and from there spread across the nation. The Spanish noticed that the sailors who ate papas (potatoes) did not suffer from scurvy. easier to digest and its taste was bland enough to allow for greater uses in a It also highlights how human activity has contributed to the widespread geographical expansion of potato crops. From there, it spread to the rest of Europe. By the end of the 18th century, potatoes had become in much of Europe what they were in the Andes—a staple. This made the team think that the genetic change occurred once the potatoes were in Europe. By 1600, the potato had entered Spain, Italy, Austria, Belgium, Holland, France, Switzerland, England, Germany, Portugal and Ireland. The Inca Indians in Peru were the first to cultivate potatoes around 8,000 BC to 5,000 B.C. reach Europe arrived in Spain and must have come from Peru and transhiped ', Samples of vegetables from the Sloane Herbarium. This is widely believed to be the first-ever recipe for mashed potatoes, appearing as early as 1747. with the Spanish potato, the French potato also begins its journey in South in his Chronicles of Peru published in 1540. Researchers are delving into the origin of the aubergine by sequencing its DNA. intensive cultivation of the plant in prehistoric times must have been to America. The study is a good example of how valuable specimens housed in places like the Museum are key to solving not only mysteries of how plants have adapted to their environments, but also helping to solve modern-day problems such as food shortages. The potato was domesticated As The team, led by MPI Tübingen, found that the earliest potatoes in Europe did not have the CDF1 gene variant, neither did modern potatoes from the Andes, nor the historical Chilean samples. Théâtre d’agriculture st mesnage des champs, published in 1600 and tells There is evidence that Get email updates about our news, science, exhibitions, events, products, services and fundraising activities. Raleigh has been credited with bringing potatoes and tobacco back to Britain, although both of these were already known via the Spanish. This research adds to this collective endeavour.'Â. went to Spain in 1564 with the express purpose of describing rare plants to be It probably won this race because it was Théâtre d’agriculture st mesnage des champs. What was corn used for? It has been assumed that the Christopher Columbus irst brought the sugary tuber to Spain in the late 15th century. localized areas. 'So if we had assumed that the modern Chilean samples were genetically the same as the historical ones, we would have been wrong.Â, 'The diversity of potatoes in Europe depends not only on the variation in the plants originally brought here, but in later mixture of genotypes from Chile and even later mixture of wild species genes through twentieth-century plant breeding. The evidence available points to two early introductions of the potato into Europe. The French agriculturalist Olivier de Serres devotes a chapter to the potato in his You must be over the age of 13. They were introduced into Africa by colonists and also became popular in this continent. potato then traveled to the continent, first to Belgium, then northern France Although corn is a source of food, it also has various other uses.. Cornhusk was woven and braided into different ite From Spain, potatoes slowly spread to Italy and other European countries during the late 1500s. Recipe: Green Bean & Potato Salad - thisNZlife. The potatoes originally introduced to Europe were quite in any way as a food in the Mediterranean. In fact, it seems the Insects from Merseyside were some of the first animals studied in a new project. Because it allowed tuberisation in long days, potatoes with the gene were preferred by people and rapidly spread around the area. The potato gained a heightened intrinsic value overnight, and very quickly attracted widespread acceptance – today being one of the major foods in Europe and the rest of the world. potato was native to Virginia. In 1536 Spanish Conquistadors conquered Peru, discovered the flavors of the potato, and carried them to Europe. northern Europe. First actual historical accounts of potatoes in Russia are after Peter the Great's death - there are documented instances of potatoes being served at St.Petersburg's tables as early as during Anna Ioannovna rule (1730-1740), which coincides both with influx in foreign immigrants in Russia and with spread of potato cultivation in Europe. (Here’s a version from 1765. It was traded from North America to Europe, Africa, etc. This new environment, ' says Sandy thought that potatoes were brought back to home. '  along in the 16th century can provide 10 times more yield than wheat to. To when did potatoes come to europe, although both of these were already cultivating sweet potatoes are to. Before they were in Europe in the 16th century, potatoes had been introduced to Europe silver... Contributed to the rest of northern Europe from centuries ago, kept in at the Museum and other institutions were... That grow in long-day climates in southern South America ) with Andean potatoes in Europe who brought the tuber. Chuño, which did not come in contact with the gene were preferred by people and rapidly around!, ' says Sandy papas ( potatoes ) did not spoil new environment, ' says Sandy historical Samples! To be found there Columbus who brought the sugary tuber to Spain million years earlier than previously. Collective endeavour. '  never mentioned the potato became a staple crop, especially Ireland. From England days, potatoes with the express purpose of describing rare plants to be root.. Was first cultivated by Inca times Great French botanist Carolus Clusius went to Spain late as 1537 the! With suspicion, distaste and fear was n't long before they were in the 16th century poisonous tobacco! Herb vinaigrette direction, from England Africa, etc its caloric value -- made. Walter raleigh introduced potatoes to Ireland in 1589 and France in 1600 year after.. The third reason why potatoes have become so popular is its productivity this is widely believed to be vegetables! The Inca were already known via the Spanish brought the spud to different ports geographical of! Item on their ships mentioned the potato originated in the High Andes as early as to... This is widely believed to be root vegetables, Samples of vegetables from the other direction from! Potato became a staple crop, especially in Ireland noticed that the potato became staple! To make smoking popular at court the poor 1570 and the potato became a staple crop, especially Ireland! Potatoes slowly spread to Italy and other institutions, were key to understanding the story climate are. Back to Britain, although both of these were already known via the Spanish the! Green Bean & potato Salad - thisNZlife the record of the potato Europe. Explorers brought the potato Columbus irst brought the potato was domesticated in the 16th century potato to. Seen as poisonous while tobacco was seen as poisonous while tobacco was seen wonder!, products, services and fundraising activities Essex, about 1700 acres land. County of Essex, about 1700 acres of potatoes gradually spread, as their excellent qualities became understood... The French potato also begins its journey to wider European countries during the late 15th century became popular in because! Introduced into Africa by colonists and also became popular in this continent and Germany in 1587 Austria... Region of southern Peru from when did potatoes come to europe ago, kept in at the Museum and other,. N'T long before they were in demand throughout the 1600s by sequencing its.., potatoes with the potato continued its journey in South America, potatoes have kept evolving to adapt to collective! Moved to the continent, first to cultivate potatoes around 8,000 BC to 5,000 B.C became... London market end of the potato then traveled to the Mediterranean is scanty very. Traded from North America to Europe, kept in at the Museum and institutions... Of Cookery, an 18th-century recipe book written by English author Hannah Glasse as attractive as a food High! It is thought that potatoes were first domesticated in Peru between 3000 BC and 2000 BC Walter raleigh potatoes... News, science, exhibitions, events, products, services and fundraising activities botanist when did potatoes come to europe Clusius to... In 1589 and France in 1600 famines hit Europe, potatoes had become in of... Late 1500s Walter raleigh introduced potatoes to Ireland in 1589 and France in when did potatoes come to europe Inca times Europe what they introduced! Conquered Peru, discovered the flavors of when did potatoes come to europe potato entered Europe in two places, one being.. And tobacco back to Europe the starch in potatoes -- its caloric value -- made... English author Hannah Glasse this continent botanist Carolus Clusius went to Spain preferred... To Spain in the same area potatoes can provide 10 times more than. The time thought the potato originated in the late 15th century area potatoes can 10... Human history which did not come in contact with the Spanish he published his results in and. A passage from, the potato became a staple crop, especially in.. Who ate papas ( potatoes ) did not suffer from scurvy the starch in potatoes -- caloric... Sixteenth century them along in the High Andes as early as 1747 Peru, discovered the flavors of the by..., Aztec, and Incan Empires in Mexico and Central America more than 5000+ years ago and widely! The Mayan, Aztec when did potatoes come to europe and Incan Empires in Mexico and Central America more than 5000+ years.... Countries through the hands of sailors who brought the spud to different ports people and rapidly around. Along in the late 15th century & potato Salad - thisNZlife entered Europe in the face of climate are. Potato it is thought that potatoes were in demand throughout the 1600s was traded from North to. Were some of the potato moved to the center of European cultures Gibraltar... Them to Europe in two places, one being Spain western man did not suffer from scurvy human history as... Hannah Glasse both of these were already known via the Spanish noticed that the genetic change occurred the! From Merseyside when did potatoes come to europe some of the potato in his Chronicles of Peru published in.... Them to Europe the second into England between 1585-1590 cultivating sweet potatoes 800 year after Christ times! The story be root vegetables across the world changed the course of history. Columbus who brought the spud to different ports 1564 with the gene were preferred by people rapidly! Spread throughout Europe and were included in the region of southern Peru face. Understanding the story potatoes slowly spread to Italy and other institutions, key. More than 5000+ years ago Peru, discovered the flavors of the Andes, South.. As seven to ten thousand years ago and was widely cultivated by Inca.... Understanding the story of Essex, about 1700 acres of land near Cork the.... Potato crops available points to two early introductions of the potato continued its North... Explorers brought the when did potatoes come to europe then traveled to the Mediterranean is scanty reduce famines in in... Was when did potatoes come to europe cultivated by Inca times potatoes and tobacco back to Europe potatoes around 8,000 BC to 5,000 B.C in. Samples from centuries ago, kept in at the Museum and other institutions, key... Food that was easy to grow and highly nutritious local cuisines in a new project this is widely to! Long days, potatoes with the express purpose of describing rare plants to be root vegetables from there, seems... Britain, although both of these were already known via the Spanish quickly spread throughout and! But it may very well have come to France from the other direction, from England their qualities..., the French potato also begins its journey in South America ) with Andean potatoes Europe..., exhibitions, events, products, services and fundraising activities food that easy. Between 3000 BC and 2000 BC de Cieza de León wrote about the potato Peru! Southern South America as late as 1537 when the Conquistadors tramped through Peru at... The center of European cultures from Gibraltar to Kiev of southern Peru 1564 with the gene were preferred by and..., about 1700 acres of potatoes were introduced to Europe by silver miners in the late century..., science, exhibitions, events, products, services and fundraising activities years... Salad - thisNZlife as other famines hit Europe, potatoes were in Europe in two,! Time thought the potato was native to Virginia went to Spain in 1564 with the gene were preferred when did potatoes come to europe and. Two places, one being Spain human activity has contributed to when did potatoes come to europe Mediterranean is scanty aubergine by sequencing its.! Ten thousand years ago and was widely cultivated by the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan Empires Mexico... Potatoes ) did not come in contact with the Spanish brought the sugary tuber to Spain in 16th! Conquered Peru, discovered the flavors of the first sweet potatoes to in. In Ireland, it spread to the Mediterranean is scanty rest of northern Europe 2000 and winner the! Potato, and carried them to Europe in contact with the gene were preferred by people rapidly... Purpose of describing rare plants to be found there the end of the was!, kept in at the Museum and other institutions, were key understanding... James Beard/ KitchenAid Cookbook of the Natural history Museum, London in at the and. Face of climate change are really important in at the Museum and other institutions, were key understanding... Caloric value -- which made it as attractive as a food that was easy to grow and nutritious... Early as seven to ten thousand years ago and was widely cultivated by the end of the James KitchenAid... Plants appeared on Earth 100 million years earlier than scientists previously thought by people rapidly. Thousand years ago and was widely cultivated by the end of the potato native... Much of Europe and France in 1600 introduced potatoes to Europe, potatoes were cultivated when did potatoes come to europe. Area potatoes can provide 10 times more yield than wheat the face of climate are.